"Professor Krauss would like to think that these do not contradict his sense of 'nothing'," Dr Ames says. "However, they do have effect matter and energy 'pop' into existence including a closed universe with the total energy exactly zero."
Having space may make it different from true nothingness in some people's minds. "This renders the possibility that space itself could suddenly pop into existence more interesting because most people would agree that no particles and no space is a good approximation to nothing at all. One can even argue that the laws of physics themselves can spontaneously appear when the universe appears. No laws, no space and no stuff that really sounds like nothing."
"For one thing, it has produced new support for the idea that our universe arose from precisely nothing," he claims. "It has also provoked us to rethink a host of assumptions about the processes that might govern its evolution and, ultimately, the question of whether the laws of nature are truly fundamental."
This was proposed at various times by several physicists, Professor Krauss included. Most importantly it was confirmed observationally by two teams that demonstrated the universe's headlong expansion was speeding up. The implication was important: 70 per cent of the universe's energy resides in New Balance Sneakers Womens
It's that time again for science to take centre stage. This year, National Science Week will host several events dedicated to exploring the sometimes tenuous relationship between science and religion.
Among other things, he plans to review key developments in cosmology and particle physics over the past 20 years that have revolutionised our picture of the origin and ultimate destiny of the universe.
So exactly how might everything arise from nothing? New Balance Burgundy Women
ï»¿In the beginning
Professor Krauss, he adds, allows that if a deity were the cause of all causes, there would be no question about what created it. "The problem Krauss identifies is that he finds no evidence for belief in such a deity. That opens up another discussion."
"The essential language of cosmology is mathematics, not commonplace words which are open to misinterpretation," he points out. "For example, when Professor Krauss uses the word 'nothing', he is actually referring to the observed vacuum of space between galaxies that is now thought to contain virtual particle pairs, and therefore to have a non zero vacuum energy."
"The characteristics we observe in our universe involving some of the most earth shattering discoveries in science are precisely those we'd expect from a universe that came from nothing via quantum mechanics."
"The amazing thing is that we have realised it is possible for the total energy of the universe to be zero," Professor New Balance Gray And Rose Gold
As it turns out, this is exactly the amount of energy scientists were missing when they tried to understand how the universe's total gravitational energy could be zero. "Endowing empty space with energy may make it seem like something rather than nothing, but there really is nothing there New Balance Black And White Boots no particles, no radiation, no stuff at all," Professor Krauss says.
Dr Ames believes the mathematics and the laws are in the mind of a deity. "If these laws include anything like quantum mechanics a richer form appropriate to the multiverse then could the multiverse could 'pop' out of 'nothing'?"
Graham Dorrington, who studied applied mathematics and theoretical physics at Britain's Cambridge University and is currently at RMIT University, says there is no quick and convenient route to a understand the principles of cosmology.
"It requires considerable effort to fully understand, like many other topics such as the compositions of Stravinsky, or the intricacies of clockwork mechanisms, or indeed how to make a good spinach souffle with anchovy sauce," Dr Dorrington says.
Even better, he adds, when gravity is added to quantum mechanics, it is possible to start out with no space and no time, and spontaneously create a universe of space and time just by relying on the laws of quantum mechanics.
Does this demonstrate beyond all reasonable doubt that the universe sprang from nothing? "No," Professor Krauss admits, "but it makes it plausible and that is worth celebrating."Professor Krauss' ideas are controversial and not applauded by everyone. "I think Professor Krauss can't do without mathematics and mathematical laws," says Melbourne University philosopher of science Stephen Ames, who is a canon of St Paul's Cathedral.
In other words, we could have a universe brimming with billions of galaxies, each containing billions of stars, and still have zero total energy. This, Professor Krauss explains, suggests that by starting out with nothing inevitably leads to something provided that one waits for long enough.
The standout among these is the appearance of Lawrence Krauss, director of the Origins Project at Arizona State University in the US, who will speak on Friday at Melbourne Town Hall on the vexing question of why there is something rather than nothing.
Nature produces surprises greater than anything humans could imagine, Professor Krauss says. Over the past two decades, big discoveries in cosmology, particle theory and gravitation research have changed our world view with far reaching implications for understanding the universe's origins.
By putting energy in empty space, it becomes gravitationally repulsive, unlike other forms of matter and energy that are gravitationally attractive.
In particular, research showing that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate has revealed that most cosmic energy resides in some mysterious form permeating empty space. The discovery, Professor Krauss says, has changed the nature of modern cosmology.
Krauss says. "This defies common sense. But, when you include gravity, it is possible to have negative energy, due to gravitational attraction, as well as positive energy so the two can balance out."
The stark realisation that nothing might well be crucial to the evolution of everything came with the recognition that empty space, devoid of all particles and radiation, actually weighs something.
Furthermore, Dr Dorrington reminds, all regions of observable space must contain some radiation.
"The results of the past century have taught us that empty space is, in fact, far from the inviolate nothingness that we presupposed before we learnt more about how nature works," he writes in his book A Universe from Nothing (Simon Schuster).
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